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Parts of computer and their functions

The computer is mainly made up of two parts which are called software and hardware. Hardware is the part of a computer that makes up the structure of the computer. The computer and all the devices attached to it are called hardware. We can see and touch hardware like Keyboards, Mouse, speakers, monitors, Web cameras, Printers, Scanner, etc. In this post, we will discuss all the main parts of a computer.

Programs designed to operate a computer are called software. Software is a set of instructions, data, or programs that are used to operate a computer and perform specific tasks. This is in contrast to hardware, which describes the physical aspects of a computer. Software is a general term used to refer to applications, scripts, and programs that run on a device.

Internal parts of the computer

In this article, we will get information about the main parts and accessories of computers being used at present. Apart from this, you will also know which accessories do what functions.


It is a complex electronic circuit of the CPU which is built on a small strip of silicon. There are pins at the bottom to attach it from the outside. This is called a microprocessor. Computers are made keeping this microprocessor chip in mind. The microprocessor is made on the basis of the capability of the computer. There has been continuous development in the speed of computers, now many microprocessors are being found. Every computer has a clock circuit that keeps regular electrical signal data like a car.

The faster this clock gives the signal, the faster the computer does its calculations or other work. Its speed is measured in megahertz, that is, one-millionth of a second. The capacity of a microprocessor is measured in bits. Earlier, there were 8-bit computers whereas now there are 16 to 32-bit processors. Processors with more bits mean more capacity and faster speeds, with larger computers also equipped with auxiliary processor chips.


A motherboard is also known as the main circuit board. It is responsible for many important electronic components of the system, such as the CPU (Center Processing Unit); RAM allows communication between memory and other computer hardware components and provides connectors for other external devices.

SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply)

Its full name is Switched-Mode Power Supply. It is the power supply unit (PSU) that is commonly used in a computer to convert the voltage into a computer-acceptable range. This device consists of power-handling electronic components that efficiently convert electrical power as required by the computer.


There are two types of computer memory. temporary and permanent. It is clear from the name of temporary that it is used while performing calculations, whereas information is stored in permanent memory forever. You use it according to your need. Temporary memory is related to RAM (Random Access Memory) and permanent memory is related to ROM (Read Only Memory).

Random Access Memory is also known as RAM. It is considered the internal memory of the computer. It is attached to the motherboard of the computer and acts as a store of data, programs as well as program results. This memory is similar to the part of our brain where we store or remember the information necessary for our daily life. The computer also needs this functionality to execute a program. Computers can read as well as write from RAM.

Data written in RAM is easy to scrape and add. You can increase or decrease it but its existence is temporary. Whereas Rome is a permanent memory. While creating a ROM, some such programs are filled in it, which is always needed by the computer. In this, we cannot change as per our wish, the capacity and power of memory are measured in kilobytes. Like earlier, it was 640 kilobytes but now 64 megabytes to 320 megabytes of memory come. Also, the memory can be increased further by installing a separate chip.

Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Drive

Disc or Disk are used in computers to store information. There are two types of disk, hard disk, and floppy disk –

  1. Hard Disc – This is the permanent disc of the computer. It is larger in size and faster in speed than the floppy disk. It cannot be taken out. This allows you to transfer information to Ploppy. It has a thin layer of magnetic material on both sides.
  2. Floppy Disc – Floppy disk is used when data has to be transferred from one computer to another. There is a slot in the front part of the computer which is used to put the floppy disk which is called a Floppy Disc Drive. In the field of computers, IBM introduced the plucky disc. He made a thin plastic disc 8 inches in diameter about 24 years ago. Later a smaller disc was made. Today the three-and-a-half-inch disc is in vogue. Information up to one and a half megabytes is written or stored on it. To read this information, a special type of machine is rotated. This machine is called a disc drive. The cover of the disc is a rectangular open strip to read the information printed on it, and the head of the drive reads.

Basic Parts of a computer

computer parts and their functions


A computer monitor is similar to a television. The images that appear on a monitor’s screen are made up of tiny dots called “pixels”. The monitor is the output device of the computer in which the details of the work done by the computer are visible.


computer mouse is a small handheld device that is used to move a cursor on a computer screen. A mouse usually has two buttons and a scroll wheel. The user moves the mouse over a flat surface, and the cursor on the screen moves in response.


It is an input device through which data is sent to the computer. The keyboard is mostly used for writing. This is used the most on the computer, through this easy and fast typing can be done in any language. It takes a USB port to connect it to the computer.


A printer is a device that prints any document on your computer. There are many types of printers-

  1. Dot Matrix Printer
  2. Line printer
  3. Inkjet Printer
  4. laser Printer etc.

Laser printers are the best in technology but they also cost the most. It is similar to a photo-copier machine, the only difference is that instead of photographing a written document like a photo-copier machine, it uses a laser beam to make a shape and it produces better printouts.


A scanner is a device that can store the image or information of a photograph directly on a computer. It works like a photography machine, the only difference is that instead of copying on paper, it gets photocopied on a computer.

Memory Card

You all must have heard its name at some point or the other. They are generally used mostly in small, portable devices, such as cameras and mobile phones. A memory card is an electronic data storage device used to store digital information, media, and data files. Memory cards are also known as flash cards.

DVD Drive

It is an electronic device specially designed to use DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) or CD (Compact Disc).

Central Processing Unit

Also called CPU, the CPU is the central processing unit controlling different parts of the computer. The CPU sends signals to control other parts of the computer, for example, the human brain controls a body part. The heart and brain of a computer are the ‘Central Processing Unit. This part of the computer holds a store of information. When we give a command, then this computer device finds it and brings it in front of us. Thus works to convert input into output.

The CPU receives data from the input unit in the form of electrical pulses or ‘bits’ (8 bits = 1 byte i.e. 1 character). From there the memory is accessed from the arithmetic logic unit and analyzed and the result is output, which you can view as a monitor or print.

System unit

This is a powerhouse. It controls all actions on any pc. It comes in two variants Desktop and Tower type. All the electronic circuits of the computer are engaged in this. One card can be used for the keyboard, another for the monitor, and a third for print. The computer is made multipurpose by placing cards in other slots as per the requirement. Like- Fax, Modem, Card, Internet, Sound, Film, etc.


It is a medium of data storage like Ploppy. In addition, it also has the facility for data backup. Up to 640 megabytes of data can be easily written or stored on a CD. Also, music and videos can be recorded in it. Earlier CDs could be written only once, but the CCs that are available now can be written multiple times.

Conclusion – In this post, you learned about computer parts like Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor, Motherboard, RAM, CPU, etc. Hope this information on the Parts of the computer proves to be informative for you. Thank you for reading the article. Read in Hindi