The development of computer has happened in 5 stages, on the basis of which computer technology is divided into 5 generations. These five generation of computers have been differentiated on the basis of their switching components –
Computer generations refer to the stages of development of computer technology. In each generation, computers have undergone significant changes, including their hardware, software, and functionality.
The first generation of computer
1940 – 1956: First Generation – Vacuum Tubes
The name of the computer of this era was ‘Universi’, and it was used for the first time in America. The use of vacuum tubes was started in this period. The development of a computer based on tubes called Mark-1 was done under this generation. The computers of this time were very modern, yet expensive, large in size, and very heat-released.
In 1952, Dr. Grace Happer, the headmaster of the University of Pennsylvania, invented assembly language and used it in the first generation of computers. In this generation, the device ‘magnetic drum’ was used for internal memory. The language of computers of this generation had come into existence. The first language was Machine Language- 0101100011000001001001 types.
The second generation of computer
1956 – 1963: Second Generation – Transistors
In the computer of this period, the transistor did the work of revolution in the field of electronics. The vacuum tube was replaced by transistors, which made the computer much lighter and smaller. It used less electricity. Instead of punch cards, the use of Tape and Disk started, due to which the speed of the computer became very fast. Due to the use of disks, computers of this generation were able to store a large amount of data and instructions.
In this generation, drums changed to magnetic core internal memory. Now Machine Language was replaced by High-Level Language, due to which the computer started operating in the English language. COBOL (common business-oriented) became the business language in general and FORTRAN (Formula Translation) was developed by IBM, which was used in most of the scientific work.
The third generation of computer
1964 – 1971: Third Generation – Integrated Circuits
In collaboration with IBM, a new series of computers equipped with Integrated Circuit (IC) was introduced. Its use started in offices. This proved to be the most epoch-making experiment. The main computers of this series were 360/Model 195, System/360, and 360/Model 10, etc. I C. The use of computers became smaller. Its maintenance became easy, in this generation a high-level language called BASIC (Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed.
In this period, the concept called RGP (Report Program Generator) came into vogue, its biggest advantage was that the layout of the desired report was freed in the computer and the computer was used to write the program itself. A mini computer named POP-8 was launched in the market at the same time. It was like a fridge. It was prepared by the company DEC- Digital Equipment Corporation. Later, another American company, Data General, launched the mini computer in the market at a very low price. Its circulation grew rapidly. By this generation, people also started getting familiar with computers in general.
Fourth Generation of Computer
1972 – 2010: Fourth Generation – Microprocessors
This generation is also known as the microprocessor era. The use of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) and ULSI (Ultra large-scale integration) started during this period and due to this, the computer became very small. This period gave birth to Intel Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, Apple, IBA, and Lotus. Bill Gates and Maryann E. Ted Haff also belong to this period.
1970 Another American company, MITS (Micro Instrumenta and Team Entry System), introduced a computer based on a microprocessor under the name Altair 8800. To make their work more useful, MITS assigned a software engineer named Billgates to create a high-level computer language named ‘BASIC’ which Billgates was successful. Later, Billgates himself established a company named ‘Microsoft Corporation’. Today Billgates is considered the richest man in the world.
In the middle of this period, two young people named Steve Jove and Jonak came to the market to market a computer kit containing a microprocessor under the name of ‘Apple Computer’. With this, Apple went a long way. Later a calculator software called Visi Cale was introduced. In 1981, IBM took the first step in the field of microcomputers which it named IBM (PC). This caused Apple to lag far behind the microcomputer. Later a Spread Sheet software named Lotus 1-2-3 was introduced in the market by ‘Lotus Development Corporation. This software was much more powerful than Apple’s Visi Cale.
IBM and Lotus
IBM and Lotus later entered into a business agreement to significantly reduce the price of their respective products. As a result, about 75% of the computer market was captured by IBM. The use of MOS (MOS: Metal Oxide Semiconductor) memory began in this generation. It was small, fast-acting, and powerful. Along with this, it also facilitated reducing and increasing the memory. In this period, C and Pascal languages came and there was a change in BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, IPG, etc. Apart from this, the trend of package software started.
Fifth-generation of computer
2010-: Fifth Generation – Artificial Intelligence
The present generation is known as the fifth generation. In this generation, the computer has become very small and very useful. In this generation, IBM has made the 80286-386-586 (Pentium) available in the market. Today supercomputers and robots have also come into the market. Artificial intelligence capabilities and new application software have also come into the market. Along with this, there has been a lot of development in the operating system as well. CDs have also proven to be better for computer entertainment. Today, the memory (RAM) of the computer can be increased or decreased as per your wish.
In the future, even greater advancements in computer technology are expected. Computers will become more powerful and intelligent, and they will play important roles in more and more areas of our lives.