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Adverbs in Hindi क्रिया विशेषण एवं इसके प्रकार

इस पोस्ट में हम Adverbs क्या है, इसके प्रकार, comparison एवं error of Adverbs के बारे में बात करेंगे।

ऐसे शब्द जो किसी वाक्य में क्रिया (verb) की विशेषता बताने के लिए प्रयोग होते हैं Adverb कहलाते हैं। Adverbs बताते हैं कि यदि कोई क्रिया हो रही है तो वह किस तरह से हो रही है, जल्दि हो रही है या धीरे हो रही है। कोई खेल रहा है वह अच्छा-बुरा कैसा खेल रहा है। इस तरह किसी होने वाली क्रिया की विशेषता adverbs बताते हैं।

Read the following sentence:

  1. घोडा फुर्ती से दौड़ता है (The horse runs swiftly)
  2. लड़की धीरे चल रही है (The girl walks slowly)

पहले वाक्य में घोड़े का दौड़ना क्रिया (verb) है लेकिन घोड़े का फुर्ती से दौड़ना क्रिया की विशेषता को प्रकट करता है। दूसरे वाक्य में लड़की चल रही है मगर धीरे चल रही है। अतः स्पष्ट है कोई क्रिया किस रूप में हो रही है यह Adverbs बताते हैं।

Kinds of adverbs – क्रियाविशेषण के प्रकार

क्रियाविशेषण (adverbs) तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-

1. Simple Adverbs सामान्य क्रिया विशेषण

Simple adverbs only modify some words. These are of the following types –

Adverbs of time

such as – Late, after words, now, then, ago, early, formerly, immediately, recently, before, after, today, tomorrow, shortly, etc. Example – Mohan came here before (मोहन यहाँ पहले आया है)

Adverbs of place

such as – Down, up, for, above, below, away, backward, inside, outside, within, without, here, everywhere, beside, etc. Example – We shall go outside (हमें बहार जाना है)

Adverbs of Manners

such as – Badly, certainly, gladly, well, quickly, so, thus, etc. Example – Rahul walks slowly. (राहुल धीरे चलता है)

Adverbs of Number

Such as – Twice, thrice, always, again, frequently, seldom, thirdly etc. Example – I have failed thrice (मैं तीन बार फ़ैल हुआ हूँ)

Adverbs of Quality/Degree

Such as – Little, more, any, almost, enough, fully, pretty, much, quite, rather, very, wholly, too, etc. Example – You are little crazy. (तुम थोड़े पागल हो।)

Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation

such as – Truly, yet, certainly, etc. Example – He will certainly help you. (वह आपकी मदद जरूर करेगा।)

Adverbs of Reason or result

Such as – As, because, for, that, since, now, seeing that, etc. – Example – She was, therefore, unable to dance. (इसलिए वह नृत्य करने में असमर्थ थी।

Adverbs of Purpose

Such as – In order to, with the purpose, with a view to, with the intention to/fore etc. Example – He worked hard so that he may get earning money. (उसने कड़ी मेहनत की ताकि वह पैसा कमा सके।)

Adverbs of Concession or Contract

Such as – Although, though, yet, all the same, even if, granting that, etc. Example – Though he works hard, he has little hope of success. (हालाँकि वह कड़ी मेहनत करता है, लेकिन उसे सफलता की बहुत कम उम्मीद है।)

Adverbs of Comparison

Less than, more than, the most, the least, than, etc. Example – She is as fatty as her brother. (वह अपने भाई की तरह मोटी है।)

Adverbs of Conditions

If, if not, such as, as long as, on condition that, provided that, supporting that, unless, etc. Example – If you go to the market, bring some oranges for me. (यदि आप बाजार जाते हैं तो मेरे लिए कुछ संतरा ले आना।)

Adverbs  of Extent

The-the, as for as, so for as, etc. Example – There was a forest as for as I could see. (जहाँ तक मैं देख सकता था वहाँ जंगल था।)

2. Relative Adverbs (सम्बन्ध वाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

These adverbs connect two clauses. They refer to some former (antecedent) noun or pronoun. These indicate time, place, and reason Such as – Time (when), Place (where) and Reason (why) are indicative of relative pronouns.

3. Interrogative Adverbs (प्रश्नवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

These adverbs are used for asking questions. These refer to Time, Place, Number, Quality, Manner, and Reason Such as – When, where, why, how for, how many, how much, how long how often, whence, etc. Example – Why he sad? (वह उदास क्यों है?), Where are you going? (कहां जा रहा है?)

Comparison of Adverbs -क्रियाविशेषण की तुलना

Positive DegreeComparative DegreeSuperlative Degree
WiselyMore wiselyMost wisely
BeautifullyMore beautifullyMost beautifully
SwiftlyMore SwiftlyMost Swiftly
Well, GoodBetterBest

Error in the use of Adverbs क्रियाविशेषणों के प्रयोग में त्रुटि

I play cricket good.I play cricket well.
I am too pleased to regret you.I am very pleased to regret you.
I am very comfortable there.I am quite comfortable there.
He walked slow.He walked slowly.
He lives miserly.He lives in a miserly way.

आशा करते  हैं  कि आज आपने adverb के बारे में एवं adverb के प्रकार के बारे में अच्छी तरह से समझ गये होंगे अगर आपको इससे थोड़ी सी भी मदद मिली हो Adverb समझने में तो इसे Facebook के बटन पर click करके share करे. Thanks for reading.

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