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Active Voice and Passive Voice एक्टिव एंड पैसिव वॉइस इन हिंदी

अंग्रेजी व्याकरण (Grammar) में वॉइस की महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका है। हमारे दैनिक जीवन में बोले जाने वाले वाक्यों में भी Active and Passive Voice का प्रयोग परिस्थिति के अनुसार किया जाता है। इस पोस्ट में एक्टिव एंड पैसिव वॉइस इन हिंदी को विस्तार से सीखेंगे

कर्म वाच्य बहुधा वहां प्रयोग में आता है, जहां कथन में कर्म पर बल दिया जाता है। उदाहरण के रूप में अगर कोई छात्र कहना नहीं मानता तो कहा जाता है – you will be punished for your negligence. (तुम्हारी लापरवाही पर तुम्हें दंड दिया जाएगा)। 

इस बात को ऐसे भी कह सकते हैं – The teacher will punish you for your negligence. आप ध्यान देंगे तो आपको पता चलेगा इसका वह प्रभाव नहीं पड़ता जैसा पहले वाक्य का पड़ता है क्योंकि वहां महत्त्व दंड देने वाले का नहीं है, बल्कि ‘दंड’ का है इसलिए ‘दंड क्रिया’ पर बल देना चाहिए।

What is Voice in Hindi? वॉइस किसे कहते हैं?

क्रिया के जिस रूप से यह ज्ञात हो कि वाक्य में क्रिया का मुख्य सम्बन्ध कर्ता, कर्म या भाव से है, वह वाच्य (Voice) कहलाता है। इसमें कर्ता (subject) मुक्य रूप से किसी कार्य के लिए जिम्मेदार होता है

Types of Voice (वॉइस के प्रकार)

Voice दो प्रकार के होते हैं

  1. Active Voice (कर्तृवाच्य)
  2. Passive Voice (कर्मवाच्य)

एक्टिव वॉइस किसे कहते हैं

जिस क्रिया में कोई व्यक्ति या वास्तु subject के रूप में कार्य करता है उसे active voice (कर्तृवाच्य) कहते हैं। सरल शब्दों में, क्रिया के जिस रूप में कर्ता प्रधान हो उसे एक्टिव वॉइस कहते हैं। The form of the verb in which the subject is predominant in the sentence is called an passive voice.

Structure – Subject + verb + object + Other Words

उदाहरण –

  1. वह सेब खाता हैं। (he eats an apple.)
  2. वह एक कहानी लिखती है। (she writes a story.)
  3. मैं उसे नहीं जानता। (I don’t know him.)

उपरोक्त वाक्यों में He, She, I कर्ता (Subject) के रूप में हैं अतः जिस कार्य को कर्ता (subject) स्वयं करे वह active voice कहलाता है

पैसिव वॉइस किसे कहते हैं?

क्रिया का वह रूप जिसमें, वाक्य में कर्म प्रधान हो कर्मवाच्य कहलाता है या क्रिया के जिस रूप में कर्म प्रधान हो उसे पैसिव वॉइस कहते है। The form of the verb in which the action is predominant in the sentence is called an adverb.

Structure – Object + helping verb +  V3 + By + Object + Other words

उदाहरण-

  1. उसके द्वारा एक सेब खाया जाता है। (An apple is eaten by him.)
  2. कहानी उसके द्वारा लिखी गई है। (A story is written by him/her.)
  3. पत्र रीता ने लिखा था। (The letter was written by Rita.)

उपरोक्त वाक्यों में subject (कर्ता) के द्वारा होते हुए कार्य पर जोर दिया गया है, इसमें An apple, A story, The letter ऑब्जेक्ट के रूप में हैं तथा eaten और Written, verb हैं।

इसे को अच्छी तरह स्पष्ट करने के लिए हम एक उदाहरण को समझते हैं। हम बात को दो प्रकार से कह सकते हैं –

  1. कर्ता पर जोर देते हुए जैसे –राम पहला अध्याय याद करता है। (Ram learns the first lesson.)
  2. कर्म पर जोर देते हुए, जैसे –पहला अध्याय राम द्वारा याद किया जाता है। (The first lesson learnat by Ram.)

यहाँ पहला वाक्य Active voice (कर्तव्य वाच्य) और दूसरा वाक्य Passive voice (कर्मवाच्य) का है

Rama killed Ravana. (Active)

Ravana was killed by Rama. (Passive)

कर्तव्य वाच्य में कर्ता (Rama) प्रधान होता है और कर्मवाच्य में कर्म (Ravana) प्रधान होता है।

Rules of active passive voice in Hindi

नियम 1 – Subject को Object में बदला जाता है और object को subject में बदला जाता है। Pronoun नीचे दी हुई टेबल के अनुसार बदलते हैं-

जैसे-

Subject Object 
IMe
WeUs
YouYou
TheyThem
HeHim
SheHer
ItIt

उदाहरण –

She sings a song. (Active)

A song is sung by her. (Passive)

नियम 2 – Passive Voice में बदलते समय मुख्य रूप से object के ठीक पहले by  का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

जैसे-

He eats an apple. (Active)

An apple is eaten by him. (Passive)

नियम 3 – Passive Voice में सहायक क्रिया हमेशा तीसरे रूप (3rd form) में बदल जाती है।

जैसे-

They’ll play cricket. (Active)

Cricket will be played by them. (Passive)

नियम 4 – कई बार active voice के एक ही वाक्य में दो object आ जाते हैं। ऐसे में एक को direct object और दूसरे को indirect object कहा जाता है।

जैसे-

he told me a story.

इस वाक्य में दो object है – me एवं a story

A story को direct object एवं me को Indirect object कहा जाएगा।

जब ऐसे वाक्यों को हम passive voice में बदलते हैं तो इनमें से केवल एक ही object को subject के स्थान पर ले जाएंगे जबकि दूसरे को object की जगह पर ही रहने देंगे।

जैसे-

He told me a story. (Active)

A story was told to me by him. (Passive)

नियम 5 – पैसिव वॉइस में बदलते समय can, could, would, should, may, might, must और ought के साथ be लगता है और इन सहायक क्रियाओं का रूप नहीं बदलता। अगर might have हो तो passive voice में might have been में बदल जाता है।

जैसे-

I could do that. (Active)

That could be done by me. (Passive)

Passive voice in imperative sentence

नियम 6 – आज्ञा सूचक वाक्य (imperative sentence) को  पैसिव वॉइस में बदलते समय let be, should be, या you are ordered to, requested to, advised to आदि का प्रयोग किया जाता है। प्रार्थना सूचक वाक्यों में please या kindly हटा दिया जाता है। By का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता।

जैसे-

Respect your elders. (Active)
Let your elders be respected. (Passive)

Serve the country. (Active)
Let the country be served. (Passive)

Don’t smoke. (Active)
You are forbidden to smoke. (Passive)

Please show me the way. (Active)
You are requested to show me the way.(passive)

Also, read – Direct and Indirect Speech – Rules and  Examples

अलग-अलग tense (काल) के active voice के वाक्यों को पैसिव वॉइस में बदलने के नियम और उदाहरण।

Active into passive voice rules for all tenses

Tense active voice Passive voice 
Present indefinite tense Subject + v1 + object.Object + am/is/are + v3 + Sub
Present continues tensesub + is/am/are + V(1st+ing) + obj.Obj + is/am/are + being + V3 + by + Sub.
Present perfect tenseSub + has/have + V3 + Obj.Obj + has/have + been + V3 + by + Sub.
Past indefinite tenseSub + V2 + Obj.Obj + was/were + V3 + by + Sub.
Past continues tenseSub + was/were + V(1st + ing) +Obj.Obj + was/were + being + V3 + by + Sub.
Past perfect tenseSub + had + V3 + Obj.Obj + had been + V3 + by + Sub.
Future indefinite tenseSub + will/shall + V1 + Obj.Obj + will/shall + be + V3 + by + Sub.
Future Perfect tense Sub + will/shall + have + V3 + Obj.Obj + will/shall + have +been + V3 + by + Sub.

Passive voice used in tenses in hindi

अलग-अलग टेंस के वाक्य को एक्टिव वोइस से पैसिव बोइस में बदलने के नियम और उदाहरण।

1. Present indefinite tense

प्रेजेंट इंडेफिनिट टेंस में एक्टिव वॉइस से पैसिव वॉइस बनाते समय सहायक क्रिया is, am, are प्रयोग किया जाता है

Structure  – Object + am/is/are + v3 + by + Sub + other Words.

Examples:

Active voicePassive voice
I play a match.A match is played by me.
Do you like music?Is music liked by you?
Does Mannu play hockey?is hockey played by Mannu?
I write my lesson.My lesson is written by me.
We see movies.movies are seen by us.

2. Present Continues tense

प्रेजेंट कंटीन्यूअस टेंस में एक्टिव वॉइस से पैसिव वॉइस बनाने के लिए सहायक क्रिया is, am, are के बाद being लगाया जाता है

Active – sub + is/am/are + V(1st+ing) + obj.
Passive – Obj + is/am/are + being + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples

Active voicePassive Voice
She is writing a story.A Story is being written by her.
Is he doing his task?Is his task being done by him?
I am singing a song.A song is being sung by me.
He is not making a noise.Noise is not being made by him.
You are teasing her.She is being teased by you.

3. Present perfect tense

Active – Sub + has/have + V3 + Obj.
Passive – Obj + has/have + been + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples –

Active voicePassive Voice
He had sold his books.His books have been sold by him.
You have shut the window.The window has been shut by you
Has he not abused me?Have I not been abused by him?
She has not combed her hair.Her hair has not been combed by her.
I won the match.The match has been won by me.

4. Past indefinite tense

Active – Sub + V2 + Obj.
Passive – Obj + was/were + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples-

Active voicePassive Voice
He stole my book.My book was stolen by him.
He played cricket.Cricket was played by him.
Did they paint this door?Was the door painted by them?
They did not pay their dues.Their dues were not paid by them.
Vikram saw a match.A match was seen by Vikram.

5. Past Continuous tense

Active – Sub + was/were + V(1st + ing) +Obj.
Passive – Obj + was/were + being + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples

Active voicePassive Voice
She was not teasing you.You were not being teased by her.
The peon was calling him.He was being called by the peon.
He was building a house.A house was being built by him.
Were are boys watching the match?was the match being watched by the boys?
I was not flying a kite.A kite was not being flown by me.

6. Past perfect tense

Active – Sub + had + V3 + Obj.
Passive – Obj + had been + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples-

Active voicePassive Voice
I had broken my class.The glass had been broken by me.
Had she dismissed the servant?Had the servant been dismissed by her?
We had not bought the house.The house had not been bought by us.
Rahul had not changed his dress.His dress had not been changed by Rahul.
Had he learned his lesson?Had his lesson been learned by him?

7. Future indefinite tense

Active – Sub + will/shall + V1 + Obj.
Passive – Obj + will/shall + be + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples

Active voicePassive Voice
I shall help him.She will be helped by me.
She will visit you.You will be visited by her.
He will not spare you.You will not be spared by him.
Will you say your prayers?Will your prayers be said by you?
She will accept the orders.The orders will be accepted by her.

8. Future perfect tense

Active – Sub + will/shall + have + V3 + Obj.
Passive – Obj + will/shall + have +been + V3 + by + Sub.

Examples

Active voicePassive Voice
We shall not have played the game.The game will not have been played by us.
She will have delivered a speech.A speech will have been delivered by her.
They will have seen this picture.This picture will have been seen by them.
I shall not have spoken the truth.The truth will not have been spoken by me.
He will have caught the thief.The thief will have been caught by him.

[याद रखें केवल ऊपर बताये गए आठ टेंस के पैसिव voice होते है बाकि टेंस के पैसिव voice नहीं होते ]

Passive voice in interrogative sentences

नियम 7 – प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य (interrogative sentences) जो what, why, when, how, which, where, who आदि से आरंभ होते हैं – ऐसे वाक्य active या passive में प्रश्नवाचक ही रहते हैं

जैसे-

What do you want? (Active)
What is wanted by you? (Passive)

When will you see her? (Active)
When will she be seen by you? (Passive)

Why did he abuse you? (Active)
Why were you abused by him? (Passive)

नियम 8 – Active voice में कई वाक्य ऐसे भी होते हैं जिनमें passive voice बनाते समय ‘by’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता।

जैसे-
The news alarmed us. (Active)
We were alarmed at this news. (Passive)

Suresh knows him. (Active)
he is known to Suresh. (Passive)

Your behavior displeased me. (Active)
I was displeased at your behavior. (Passive)

Active into Passive Voice examples/एक्टिव पैसिव वौइस् एक्सरसाइज

Active voicePassive Voice
Do this work.Let this work be done. (by you)
Ask him to sit down.Let him be asked to sit down.
Punish him.Let him be punished. (by you)
He sings a song.A song is sung by him.
Are you writing a letter?Is A letter being written by you?
They’ll play cricket.Cricket will be played by them.
Have you finished this job?Has this Job been finished by you?
Help him.Let him be helped.
He termed down my proposal.My proposal was termed down by him.
The children are laughing at the beggar.The beggar is being laughed at by the children.
They charged him with murder.He was charged with murder by them.
She has seen through your trick.Your trick has been seen through by her.
She objects to your proposal.Your proposal is objected to by her.
I played upon his weakness.His weakness was played upon by me.
It is time to take tea.It is time for tea to be taken.
I do not know him.He is not known to me.
Do I annoy you?Are you annoyed with me?
One should keep one’s wordsWords should be kept.
Women want men to flatter them.Women want to be flattered by men.
The postman delivers a letter twice a day.Letters are delivered twice a day.
Someone has stolen my scooter.My scooter has been stolen.
He will eat an apple.An apple will be eaten by him.

Active/passive voice exercises with answers/एक्टिव वॉइस एंड पैसिव वॉइस सेंटेंस

Active voicePassive Voice
He has to do it.It has to be done by him.
Send him out, please.You are requested to send him out.
They say.It is said.
Kindly sit downyou are requested to sit down.
Do you know his mother?Is his mother known to you?
Who told you my address?By whom was my address told to you?
I object to her proposal of marriage.Her proposal of marriage was objected to by me.
Whom do you want to see?Who is wanted to be seen by you?
Aaryan is to make a speech today.A speech is to be made by Aaryan today.
What do you want?What is wanted by you?
Your conduct displeased your friends.Your friends were displeased at your conduct.
They want to see the launching of the ship.They want to see the ship being launched.
He is to do.It is to be done by you.
Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones at others.The stone should not be thrown at others by those who live in glass houses.
Don’t come late.You are ordered not to become late.
Open the door.You are ordered to open the door.
May I attend your lecture?May your lecture be attended by me.
Would you do it, please?Would it be done by you please?
What can he do for you?What can be done for you by him?
I could do that.That could be done by me.
You must finish your lesson.Your lesson must be finished by you.
We ought to love our country.Our country ought to be loved by us.
We should help the poor.The poor should be helped by us

Also, Read

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